BIOLOGY Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – Biology Paper 1 
Length of Paper – 1 hour 30mins 
Specification reference  Checklist questions 

3.1.1  Can you explain that all living things have a similar biochemical basis?  
3.1.1  Can you explain that monomers are smaller units from which larger molecules are made?  
3.1.1  Can you describe polymers and state that they are made from a large number of monomers?  
3.1.1  Can you name examples of monomers – for example, monosaccharides, amino acids, and nucleotides?  
3.1.1  Can you describe how a condensation reaction joins two molecules together?  
3.1.1  Can you explain that a condensation reaction forms a chemical bond and involves the elimination of a molecule of water?  
3.1.1  Can you describe how a hydrolysis reaction breaks a chemical bond between two molecules, involving the use of a water molecule?  
3.1.2  Can you describe how larger carbohydrates are made from monosaccharide monomers?  
3.1.2  Can you list some common monosaccharides – for example, glucose, galactose and fructose?  
3.1.2  Can you describe how a condensation reaction between two monosaccharides forms a glycosidic bond?  
3.1.2  Can you describe how disaccharides are formed by the condensation of two monosaccharides?  
3.1.2  Can you explain that maltose is a disaccharide formed by the condensation of two glucose molecules?  
3.1.2  Can you explain that sucrose is a disaccharide formed by the condensation of a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule?  
3.1.2  Can you explain that lactose is a disaccharide formed by the condensation of a glucose molecule and a galactose molecule?  
3.1.2  Can you describe how glucose has two isomers, αglucose and βglucose?  
3.1.2  Can you draw the structure of an αglucose isomer?  
3.1.2  Can you draw the structure of an βglucose isomer?  
3.1.2  Can you describe how polysaccharides are formed by the condensation of many glucose units?  
3.1.2  Can you explain that glycogen and starch are formed by the condensation of αglucose?  
3.1.2  Can you explain that cellulose is formed by the condensation of βglucose?  
3.1.2  Can you describe the basic structure and functions of glycogen, starch and cellulose?  
3.1.2  Can you describe the relationship of structure to function of glycogen, starch and cellulose in animal cells?  
3.1.2  Can you describe the relationship of structure to function of glycogen, starch and cellulose in plant cells?  
3.1.2  Can you describe and conduct biochemical tests using Benedict’s solution for reducing sugars and nonreducing sugars?  
3.1.2  Can you describe and conduct biochemical tests using iodine/potassium iodide for starch?  
3.1.3  Can you explain how triglycerides and phospholipids are two groups of lipid?  
3.1.3  Can you describe how triglycerides are formed by the condensation of one molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acid?  
3.1.3  Can you describe how a condensation reaction between glycerol and a fatty acid (RCOOH) forms an ester bond?  
3.1.3  Can you explain that the Rgroup of a fatty acid may be saturated or unsaturated?  
3.1.3  Can you describe how, in phospholipids, one of the fatty acids of a triglyceride is substituted by a phosphatecontaining group?  
3.1.3  Can you list and describe the different properties of triglycerides and phospholipids related to their different structures?  
3.1.3  Can you describe and conduct the emulsion test for lipids?  
3.1.3  Can you recognise a diagram of a saturated fatty acid?  
3.1.3  Can you recognise a diagram of an unsaturated fatty acid?  
3.1.3  Can you explain the different properties of triglycerides?  
3.1.3  Can you explain the different properties of phospholipids?  
3.1.4.1  Can you explain that amino acids are the monomers from which proteins are made?  
3.1.4.1  Can you recognise and draw the general structure of an amino acid?  
3.1.4.1  Can you explain that the twenty amino acids that are common in all organisms differ only in their side group?  
3.1.4.1  Can you explain that a condensation reaction between two amino acids forms a peptide bond?  
3.1.4.1  Can you describe how dipeptides are formed by the condensation of two amino acids?  
3.1.4.1  Can you describe how polypeptides are formed by the condensation of many amino acids?  
3.1.4.1  Can you explain that a functional protein may contain one or more polypeptides?  
3.1.4.1  Can you describe the role of hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds and disulfide bridges in the structure of proteins?  
3.1.4.1  Can you explain that proteins have a variety of functions within all living organisms?  
3.1.4.1  Can you describe the relationship between primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure, and protein function?  
3.1.4.1  Can you describe and conduct the biuret test for proteins?  
3.1.4.1  Can you relate the structure of proteins to properties of a variety of proteins?  
3.1.4.2  Can you explain that each enzyme lowers the activation energy of the reaction it catalyses?  
3.1.4.2  Can you describe the inducedfit model of enzyme action?  
3.1.4.2  Can you explain that the properties of an enzyme relate to the tertiary structure of its active site and its ability to combine with complementary substrate(s) to form an enzymesubstrate complex?  
3.1.4.2  Can you describe the specificity of enzymes?  
3.1.4.2  Can you describe the effects of the following factors on the rate of enzymecontrolled reactions:


3.1.4.2  Can you describe how models of enzyme action have changed over time?  
3.1.4.2  Can you describe how enzymes catalyse a wide range of intracellular and extracellular reactions that determine structures and functions from cellular to wholeorganism level?  
3.1.4.2  Can you investigate the effect of a named variable on the rate of an enzymecontrolled reaction?  
Specification reference  Checklist questions 

3.1.5.1  Can you explain that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are important informationcarrying molecules? 

3.1.5.1  Can you describe how DNA holds genetic information in all living cells?  
3.1.5.2  Can you describe how RNA transfers genetic information from DNA to the ribosomes?  
3.1.5.2  Can you describe how ribosomes are formed from RNA and proteins?  
3.1.5.2  Can you explain that both DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides?  
3.1.5.2  Can you describe how nucleotides are formed from a pentose, a nitrogencontaining organic base and a phosphate group?  
3.1.5.2  Can you draw the structure of a nucleotide?  
3.1.5.2  Can you list the components of a DNA nucleotide: deoxyribose; a phosphate group; one of the organic bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, or thymine?  
3.1.5.2  Can you list the components of an RNA nucleotide: ribose; a phosphate group; one of the organic bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, or uracil?  
3.1.5.2  Can you explain how a phosphodiester bond is formed from a condensation reaction between two nucleotides?  
3.1.5.2  Can you describe the structure of a DNA molecule: a double helix with two polynucleotide chains held together by hydrogen bonds between specific complementary base pairs?  
3.1.5.2  Can you describe the structure of an RNA molecule: a relatively short polynucleotide chain?  
3.1.5.2  Can you explain how the relative simplicity of DNA led many scientists to doubt that it carried the genetic code?  
3.1.5.2  Can you explain that the semiconservative replication of DNA ensures genetic continuity between generations of cells?  
3.1.5.2  Can you describe the process of semiconservative replication of DNA:


3.1.5.2  Can you evaluate the work of scientists in validating the Watson–Crick model of DNA replication?  
3.1.6  Can you describe how a single molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide derivative?  
3.1.6  Can you describe how a single molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is formed from a molecule of ribose, a molecule of adenine and three phosphate groups?  
3.1.6  Can you draw the structure of a single molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)?  
3.1.6  Can you describe Hydrolysis of ATP to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and an inorganic phosphate group (Pi) is catalysed by the enzyme ATP hydrolase?  
3.1.6  Can you explain how the hydrolysis of ATP can be coupled to energyrequiring reactions within cells?  
3.1.6  Can you explain that the inorganic phosphate released during the hydrolysis of ATP can be used to phosphorylate other compounds, often making them more reactive?  
3.1.6  Can you explain how ATP is resynthesised by the condensation of ADP and Pi?  
3.1.6  Can you describe how the condensation of ADP and Pi is catalysed by the enzyme ATP synthase during photosynthesis, or during respiration?  
3.1.7  Can you explain that water is a major component of cells?  
3.1.7  Can you explain that water is a metabolite in many metabolic reactions, including condensation and hydrolysis reactions?  
3.1.7  Can you explain that water an important solvent in which metabolic reactions occur?  
3.1.7  Can you explain that water has a relatively high heat capacity, buffering changes in temperature?  
3.1.7  Can you explain that water has a relatively large latent heat of vaporisation, providing a cooling effect with little loss of water through evaporation?  
3.1.7  Can you explain that water has strong cohesion between water molecules; this supports columns of water in the tubelike transport cells of plants and produces surface tension where water meets air?  
3.1.8  Can you describe how inorganic ions occur in solution in the cytoplasm and body fluids of organisms, in high or very low concentrations?  
3.1.8  Can you explain that each type of ion has a specific role, depending on its properties?  
3.1.8  Can you recognise the role of ions in the following topics: hydrogen ions and pH; iron ions as a component of haemoglobin; sodium ions in the cotransport of glucose and amino acids; and phosphate ions as components of DNA and of ATP?  
Specification reference  Checklist questions 

3.2.3  Can you describe the arrangement and movement of phospholipids, proteins, glycoproteins and glycolipids in the fluidmosaic model of membrane structure?  
3.2.3  Can you explain that cholesterol may be present in cell membranes where it restricts the movement of other molecules making up the membrane?  
3.2.3  Can you explain how movement across membranes occurs by simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, active transport, and cotransport?  
3.2.3  Can you explain how cells may be adapted for rapid transport across their internal or external membranes:
· by an increase in surface area of their membranes · by an increase in the number of protein channels and carrier molecules in their membranes? 

3.2.3  Can you explain the adaptations of specialised cells in relation to the rate of transport across their internal and external membranes?  
3.2.3  Can you explain how surface area, number of channel or carrier proteins and differences in gradients of concentration or water potential affect the rate of movement across cell membranes?  
3.2.3  Can you produce a dilution series of a solute to produce a calibration curve with which to identify the water potential of plant tissue?  
3.2.3  Can you investigate the effect of a named variable on the permeability of cellsurface membranes?  
Specification reference  Checklist questions 

3.2.4  Can you describe how each type of cell has specific molecules on its surface that identify it?  
3.2.4  Can you describe how the surface molecules include proteins and enable the immune system to identify:


3.2.4  Can you define ‘antigen’?  
3.2.4  Can you describe the effect of antigen variability on disease and disease prevention?  
3.2.4  Can you explain the phagocytosis of pathogens and subsequent destruction of ingested pathogens by lysozymes?  
3.2.4  Can you describe the response of T lymphocytes to a foreign antigen (the cellular response)?  
3.2.4  Can you describe the role of antigenpresenting cells in the cellular response?  
3.2.4  Can you describe the role of helper T cells (TH cells) in stimulating cytotoxic T cells (TC cells), B cells, and phagocytes?  
3.2.4  Can you describe the response of B lymphocytes to a foreign antigen, clonal selection and the release of monoclonal antibodies (the humoral response)?  
3.2.4  Can you define ‘antibody’?  
3.2.4  Can you describe the structure of an antibody?  
3.2.4  Can you explain the formation of an antigenantibody complex?  
3.2.4  Can you describe the roles of plasma cells and of memory cells in producing primary and secondary immune responses?  
3.2.4  Can you describe the use of vaccines to provide protection for individuals and populations against disease?  
3.2.4  Can you explain the concept of herd immunity?  
3.2.4  Can you explain the differences between active and passive immunity?  
3.2.4  Can you describe the structure of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and its replication in helper T cells?  
3.2.4  Can you explain how HIV causes the symptoms of AIDS?  
3.2.4  Can you explain why antibiotics are ineffective against viruses?  
3.2.4  Can you describe the use of monoclonal antibodies in targeting medication to specific cell types by attaching a therapeutic drug to an antibody?  
3.2.4  Can you describe the use of monoclonal antibodies in medical diagnosis?  
3.2.4  Can you describe the ethical sues associated with the use of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies?  
3.2.4  Can you explain how antibodies are used in the ELISA test?  
3.2.4  Can you discuss ethical issues associated with the use of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies? 

3.2.4  Can you evaluate methodology, evidence and data relating to the use of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies?  
Specification reference  Checklist questions 

3.4.3  Can you explain that gene mutations involve a change in the base sequence of chromosomes?  
3.4.3  Can you describe how gene mutations can arise spontaneously during DNA replication and include base deletion and base substitution?  
3.4.3  Can you explain that not all base substitutions cause a change in the sequence of encoded amino acids, due to the degenerate nature of the genetic code?  
3.4.3  Can you describe how mutagenic agents can increase the rate of gene mutation?  
3.4.3  Can you explain that mutations in the number of chromosomes can arise spontaneously by chromosome nondisjunction during meiosis?  
3.4.3  Can you describe how meiosis produces daughter cells that are genetically different from each other?  
3.4.3  Can you describe the process of meiosis in terms of two nuclear divisions resulting usually in the formation of four haploid daughter cells from a single diploid parent cell?  
3.4.3  Can you describe the process of meiosis in terms of genetically different daughter cells resulting from the independent segregation of homologous chromosomes?  
3.4.3  Can you describe the process of meiosis in terms of crossing over between homologous chromosomes results in further genetic variation among daughter cells?  
3.4.3  When given the chromosome content of the parent cell, can you complete diagrams showing the chromosome content of cells after the first and second meiotic division?  
3.4.3  Can you explain the different outcome of mitosis and meiosis?  
3.4.3  When given information about an unfamiliar life cycle, can you recognise where meiosis occurs?  
3.4.3  Can you explain how random fertilisation of haploid gametes further increases genetic variation within a species? 
BUSINESS Y12 PPE 2 (A Level)
Name of Paper – AS Paper 1 
Length of Paper – 1 hour 30 minutes 
Areas of Focus/Review – Please be as descriptive as possible.  Covered (Tick) 
Shares in PLCs and market capitalisation  
Marketing decisions & Market segmentation  
Marketing mix  
Operational Performance decisions  
Inventory control  
Supply chain  
HRM approaches & HR flow  
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs  
Management styles and theories  
Labour Productivity  
Variable and fixed costs  
Debt factoring  
Return on Investment (ROI, ROCE)  
Decision trees 
CHEMISTRY Y12 PPE 2
Areas of Focus/Review
3.1.1 Atomic Structure 
Covered (Tick) 
Determine the number of fundamental particles in atoms and ions using mass number, atomic number and charge  
Explain the existence of isotopes  
Interpret simple mass spectra of elements  
Calculate the relative atomic mass from isotopic abundance, limited to mononuclear ions  
Define first ionisation energy  
Write equations for first and successive ionisation energies  
Explain how first and successive ionisation energies in period 3 (NaAr) and in group 2 (BeBa) give evidence for electron configuration in subshells and in shells 
Areas of Focus/Review
3.1.2 Amount of Substance 
Covered (Tick) 
Define relative atomic mass (Ar) and relative molecular mass (Mr)  
Carry out calculations using the Avogadro constant  
Carry out calculations using mass of substance, Mr and amount in moles  
Carry out calculations using concentration, volume and amount of substance in a solution  
Use the ideal gas equation pV = nRT in calculations (variables in SI units)  
Calculate empirical formula from data giving composition by mass or percentage mass  
Calculate molecular formula from the empirical formula and relative molecular mass  
Write balanced equations (full and ionic) for reactions studied  
Balance equations for unfamiliar reactions when reactants and products are specified  
State the economic, ethical and environmental advantages for society amd for industry for developing chemical reatcions with high atom economy  
Use balanced equations to calculate: Masses, volumes of gases, percentage yield, atom economies; and concentrations & volumes for liquids  
REQUIRED PRACTICAL 1: make up a volumetric solution and carry out simple acidbase titration 
Areas of Focus/Review
3.1.3 Bonding 
Covered (Tick) 
Ionic bonding involves electrostatic attraction between oppositely charges ions in a lattice  
Predict the charge on a simple ion using the position of the element in the periodic table  
Construct formulas for ionic compounds (e.g sulfate, hydroxide, nitrate, carbonate and ammonium)  
Single covalent bond contains a shared pair of electrons; multiple bonds contain multiple pairs of electrons; coordinate (dative covalent) bond shares a pair of electrons, both supplied by 1 atom  
Represent a covalent bond using a line; coordinate bond using an arrow  
Represent a covalent bond using a line; coordinate bond using an arrow  
Metallic bonding involves attraction between delocalised electrons and positive ions arranged in a lattice  
The structures of: diamond, graphite, ice, iodine, magnesium and sodium chloride as examples of one of these 4 crystal structures: ionic, metallic, macromolecular, molecular  
Relate the melting point and conductivity of materials to the type of structure and bonding present  
Explain the energy changes associated with changes of state  
Draw diagrams to represent these structures involving specified numbers of particles  
Explain the shapes of, and bond angles in, simple molecules and ions with up to six electron pairs (including lone pairs) surrounding the central atom  
Pairs of electrons as clouds that reel each other, arranging themselves as far apart as possible; with lone pair lone pair repulsion being greater than pair bond, pair bond repulsion  
Define electronegativity  
Use partial charges to show that a bond is polar  
Explain why some molecules with polar bonds do not have a permanent dipole  
Explain the existence of: permanent dipoledipole forces; induced dipoledipole (van der Waals, dispersion, London) forces; hydrogen bonding; between familiar and unfamilar molecules  
Explain how melting and boiling points are influenced by these intermolecular forces. 
Areas of Focus/Review
3.1.4 Energetics 
Covered (Tick) 
Understand reactions can be exothermic or endothermic and that enthalpy change (ΔH) is the heat energy change measured under conditions of constant pressure  
Understand the term standard conditions.  
Define standard entahlpy change of combustion (ΔcHθ) and standard enthalpy change of formation (ΔfHθ)  
Use the equation q=mcΔT to calculate the molar enthalpy change for a reaction and in related calculations  
REQUIRED PRACTICAL 2: Measurement of an enthalpy change  
Use Hess’s law to perform calculations, including calculation of enthalpy changes for reactions from enthalpies of combustion or from enthapies of formation  
Define the term mean bond enthalpy  
Use mean bond enthalpies to calculate an approximate value of ΔH for reactions in the gaseous state  
Explain why values from mean bond enthalpy calculations differ from those determined using Hess’s law 
Areas of Focus/Review
3.1.5 Kinetics and 3.1.7 Redox 
Covered (Tick) 
Define the term activation energy  
Explain why most collisions do not lead to a reaction  
Draw and explain MaxwellBoltzmann distribution curves for differnet temperatures  
Define the term: rate of reaction  
Use the MaxwellBoltzmann distribution curve to explain why a small increase in temperature can lead to a large increase in rate  
REQUIRED PRACTICAL 3: Investigation of how the rate of a reaction changes with temperature  
Explain how a change in concentration or a change in pressure influences the rate of a reaction (collision frequency)  
Define the term catalyst and explain how they work (activation energy; alternative pathway)  
Use a MaxwellBoltzmann distribution to help explain how a catalyst increases the rate of a reaction involving a gas  
Understand the terms oxidation and reduction in terms of electrons  
Work out the oxidation state of an element in a compound or ion from the formula  
Write half equations identifying the oxidation and reduction processes in redox reactions  
Combine half equations to give an overall redox equation 
Areas of Focus/Review
3.1.6 Chemical equilibria, Le Chatalier’s Principle and Kc 
Covered (Tick) 
Explain what is happening in a reversible reaction at equilibrium  
Use Le Chatelier’s principle to predict qualitatively the effect of changes in temperature, pressure and concentration on the position of equilibrium (Catalysts do not affect it)  
Explain why, for a reversible reaction used in an industrial process, a compromise temperature and pressure may be used  
Construct an expression for Kc for a homogeneous system in equilibrium (using [X] for a species X of mol dm3 concentration)  
Calculate a value for Kc from the equilibrium concentrations for a homogeneous system at constant temperature  
Perform calculations involving Kc  
Predict the qualitative effects of changes of temperature on the value of Kc 
Areas of Focus/Review
3.2.1 Periodicity 
Covered (Tick) 
Understand that an element is classified as s, p, d or f block and why  
Explain the trends in atomic radius and first ionisation energy (NaAr)  
Explain the melting points of the elements in terms of their structure and bonding (NaAr) 
Areas of Focus/Review
3.3.1 Introduction to Organic Chemistry 
Covered (Tick) 
Understand that organic compounds can be represented by: empirical formula, molecular formula, general formula, structural formula, displayed formula, skeletal formula  
Describe the characteristics of a homologous series  
Draw structural, displayed and skeletal formulas for given organic compounds  
Apply IUPAC rules for nomenlature to name organic compounds limited to chains and rings with up to six carbon atoms each  
Appy IUPAC rules for nomenclature to draw the structure of an organic compound from the IUPAC name limited to chains and rings with up to six carbons  
Write balanced equations for the steps in a freeradical mechanism (unpaired electrons represented by a dot)  
Outline mechanisms by drawing the structures of the species involved and curly arrows to represent the movement of electron pairs (ensuring curly arrows start/ stop at the bond)  
Define the term structural isomer  
Draw the structures of chain, position and functinal group isomers  
Define the term stereoisomer  
Draw the structural formulas of E and Z isomers  
Apply the CIP (CahnIngoldPrelog) priority rules to E and Z isomers 
Areas of Focus/Review
3.3.2 Alkanes 
Covered (Tick) 
State that alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons  
Describe how the alkanes in petroleum can be separated  
State that cracking involves breaking CC bonds in alkanes  
Describe the processes of thermal cracking and catalytic cracking including the types of products formed  
Explain the economic reasons for cracking alkanes  
State alkanes are used as fuels and that combustion can be complete or incomplete  
Describe the pollutants produced by the internal combustion engine and how they can be removed using a catalytic convertor  
Describe the impact sulfur dioxide has on the atmosphere and explain why it can be removed from flue gases using calcium oxide or calcium carbonate  
Explain the reaction of methane with chlorine as a freeradical substitution mechanism involving initiation, propagation and termination steps 
Areas of Focus/Review
3.3.3 Halogenoalkanes 
Covered (Tick) 
State that halogenoalkanes contain polar bonds  
Outline the nucleophilic substitution mechanisms of the reactions between halogenoalkanes with the nucleophiles OH, CN and NH3  
Explain why the carbonhalogen bond enthalpy influences the rate of reaction  
Explain the role of the reagent as both nucleophile and base (concurrent substitution and elimination reactions of halogenoalkane e.g. 2bromopropane with potassium hydroxide)  
Outline the mechanisms of these reactions  
Describe ozone as naturally forming in the atmosphere and being beneficial because it absorbs UV radiation  
Use equations to explain how chlorine atoms catalyse the decomposition of ozone  
Understand how results of research groups provided evidence for banning the use of CFCs as solvents and refridgerants; as well as the development of chlorinefree compounds 
Areas of Focus/Review
3.3.4 Alkenes 
Covered (Tick) 
State that alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons with a double covalent bond, a centre of high electron density  
Outline the mecahnisms for the electrophilic additions of alkenes with HBr, H2SO4 and Br2  
Describe the use of bromine to test for saturation  
Explain the formation of major and minor products in addition reactions by reference to the relative stabilities of primary, seconday and tertiary carbocation intermediates  
State that addition polymers are formed from alkenes and substituted alkenes  
Draw the: repeating unit from a monomers structure; repeating unit from a section of the polymer chain and the structure of the monomer from a section of the polymer  
Explain why addition polymers are unreactive  
Explain the nature of intermolecular forces between molecules or polyalkenes 
COMPUTER SCIENCE Y12 PPE 2
Areas of Focus/Review – Please be as descriptive as possible.  Covered (Tick) 
Processor Components and performance  
Types of processor  
Input, output and storage devices  
Types of operating software and their functions  
Nature of applications  
Programming language translators  
System analysis methods  
Programming paradigms  
Compression and encryption  
Creating relational databases  
SQL  
Number systems and conversions  
Binary arithmetic. (fixed point included)  
HTML Javascript 
CORE MATHS Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – Paper 2B 
Length of Paper – 1hr 30 mins 
Areas of Focus/Review – Please be as descriptive as possible.  Covered (Tick) 
Analysing critically – communicating mathematical approaches  
Analysing critically – presenting a logical argument  
Activity Network – critical paths – Gantt charts  
Venn diagrams  
Expectation/probability  
Cost benefit analysis 
CORE MATHS Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – Paper 1 
Length of Paper – 1hr 30 mins 
Areas of Focus/Review – Please be as descriptive as possible.  Covered (Tick) 
Analysis of data – Stem and Leaf diagrams  
Percentages/VAT  
Exchange rates  
Fermi Estimation  
Collecting and sampling data  
Spreadsheets  
AER  
Analysis of data – frequency tables and histograms  
Income Tax and National Insurance  
Analysis of data – frequency and standard deviation  
Financial modelling 
DRAMA & THEATRE Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – Component 3 
Length of Paper – 2 hours 30 minutes 
Theatre Makers in Practice  Covered (Tick) 
Section A Revise notes made in response to the live theatre performance  
Section A Evaluate how the performance was relevant for a modern day audience  
Section A Read a range of reviews on the live performance  
Section B Revise lesson notes made on your exploration of Equus  
Section B Evaluate the effectiveness of each design element with specific examples to Equus  
Section CRevise lesson notes made on your exploration of Woyzeck  
Section C Revise and refine your directorial concept for Woyzeck 
ECONOMICS Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – Year 12 Economics PPE2 
Length of Paper – 1 Hour 
Areas of Focus/Review – Please be as descriptive as possible.  Covered (Tick) 
— Unit 2: The national economy in a global context (macroeconomics)
– The measurement of macroeconomic performance Understand the macroeconomic objectives and how they are measured Be able to calculate and interpret index numbers Learn the injections and withdrawals from the circular flow of income Be able to explain the multiplier effect in terms of injections and withdrawals Be able to define aggregate demand and draw an AD curve Learn the components of aggregate demand and how they are determined Understand how the components of aggregate demand shift the AD curve to the left and right Be able to define aggregate supply and draw an AS curve Understand the determinants of (short run) aggregate supply Understand how determinants of aggregate supply shift the AS curve to the left and right Be able to define long run aggregate supply and draw an LRAS curve Understand how shifts in AD, SRAS and LRAS can affect the macroeconomic objectives (equilibrium) Economic performance (economic growth) Be able to define economic growth and draw and interpret an economic cycle diagram Know the difference between short run and long run economic growth (show on diagrams) Be able to use AD/AS, PPF and economic cycle diagrams to illustrate economic growth Be able to define and characterise positive and negative output gaps Be able to explain the characteristics of the different stages of the economic cycle Be able to analyse and evaluate the costs and benefits of economic growth Economic performance (Unemployment) Be able to define unemployment and explain how it is measured Be able to analyse the different causes/types of unemployment Be able to analyse and evaluate the macroeconomic effects of unemployment Be able to suggest and analyse solutions to rising unemployment Economic performance (inflation/deflation) Be able to define inflation and explain how it is measured Be able to analyse the different causes of inflation and show them on an AD/AS diagram Be able to understand and interpret the quantity theory of money Be able to analyse the effects that inflation has on the macroeconomy Be able to define deflation and analyse its effects on the macroeconomy using an AD/AS diagram
PPE LAYOUT
TOTAL MARKS – 51 MARKS 
ENGLISH LITERATURE Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – Prose 
Length of Paper – 1 hour 
Areas of Focus/Review – Please be as descriptive as possible.  Covered (Tick) 
I have a clear and confident understanding of both the prose texts ‘Frankenstein’ and ‘The Handmaid’s Tale’.  
I have reread the texts independently and have detailed notes on the significant chapters/quotes in each text.  
I can summarise the plot of both ‘Frankenstein’ and ‘The Handmaid’s Tale’ and describe the key characters and make links to the text’s central themes.  
I can make a mindmap of the key themes, with quotes from each text .  
I have independently researched key areas of context relating to the lives and times of both Mary Shelley and Margaret Atwood.  
I understand the literary context of dystopian and science fiction and how it relates to the texts and how it might reflect different concerns.  
I understand the requirements of the question: Compare the ways in which the writers of your two chosen texts use the narrators in their works. You must relate your discussion to relevant contextual factors.
(Total for Question 7 = 40 marks) 

I understand the assessment objectives for this unit and the mark scheme.  
I am confident that my written expression is highly articulate and that my spelling, punctuation and grammar are accurate. I use technical terminology well.  
I can successfully write paragraphs that aim to cover all the AOs.  
I can craft a clear line of argument in my essay, moving deftly between texts. 
ENGLISH LITERATURE Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – Contemporary Poetry 
Length of Paper – I hour 
Areas of Focus/Review – Please be as descriptive as possible.  Covered (Tick) 
I have a clear and confident understanding of all poems within the Poems of the Decade Anthology.  
I can select key quotations that link to the question and analyse them. AO2  
I can evaluate how the poet uses different poetic techniques to demonstrate feelings or viewpoint of the narrator or poet. AO1/AO2  
I can confidently write about structure, language, theme and tone of a poem.  
I can confidently compare a poem from my anthology to an unseen one.  
I am able to show the links between poems according to themes and ideas: love, relationships, politics, history, old age, art and change.  
I can successfully deconstruct the question and plan three or four comparative points to be touched upon in the essay.  
I can successfully make detailed connections between the poems in the comparative paragraphs.  
I can write a clear introduction and conclusion to my essay.  
I am confident that my written expression is articulate and my spelling, punctuation and grammar are accurate  
I have been independently practising and analysing unseen poetry.  
I confidently understand key poetic terms: stanza, metaphor, imagery, symbolism, rhyme, rhythm, caesura, diction, oxymoron, enjambment, stanza, metre and their functions in adding meaning and depth to a poem. 
MEDIA STUDIES Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – Media Production, industries and Audiences 
Length of Paper – 2 hours 
Areas of Focus/Review – Please be as descriptive as possible.  Covered (Tick) 
Media Language 

Representation 

Media Industries 

Audiences 

Film 

Newspapers 

Music Videos 

Advertising and Marketing 
FRENCH Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – Listening, reading, translation 
Length of Paper – 2.5 hours 
Areas of Focus/Review – Please be as descriptive as possible.  Covered (Tick) 
Revise key vocabulary from unit 2: La “Cybersociété”  
Revise key vocabulary from unit 5 “La musique francophone contemporaine”  
Revise translation skills and notes: EngFren  
Revise translation skills and notes: FrenEng  
Revise a range of key verbs in all tenses/moods  
Review listening and reading exam strategies discussed this year so far 
FURTHER MATHS Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – Further Maths Core 
Length of Paper – 1hr 15 minutes 
Areas of Focus/Review – Please be as descriptive as possible.  Covered (Tick) 
1. Matrices and their transformations
Be able to add, subtract and multiply conformable matrices, and to multiply a matrix by a scalar Understand and use the zero and identity matrices, understand what is meant by equal matrices Know that matrix multiplication is associative but not commutative Be able to find the matrix associated with a linear transformation and vice versa. 2D transformations include the following. Reflection in the x and y axes and in y=±x Rotation centre the origin through an angle θ (counter clockwise positive) Enlargement centre the origin Stretch parallel to x or y axes Shear x or y axis fixed, shear factor 3D transformations will be confined to reflection in one of x=0, y=0, z=0 or rotation of multiples of 90º about x, y or z axis Understand successive transformations in 2D and the connection with matrix multiplication Know the meaning of, and be able to find, invariant points and invariant lines for a linear transformation 

2. Introduction to complex numbers
Understand the language of complex numbers (real part, imaginary part, complex conjugate, real axis, imaginary axis) Be able to solve any quadratic equation with real coefficients Know that the complex roots of polynomial equations with real coefficients occur in conjugate pairs Be able to add, subtract, multiply and divide complex numbers given in the form x+yi, x and y real Understand that a complex number is zero if and only if both the real and imaginary parts are zero. Be able to represent and interpret complex numbers and their conjugates on an Argand diagram. Be able to represent the sum and difference of two complex numbers on an Argand diagram. 

3. Roots of polynomials
Understand and use the relationships between the roots and coefficients of quadratic, cubic and quartic equations Be able to form a new equation whose roots are related to the roots of a given quadratic cubic or quartic equation by a linear transformation. Know that the complex roots of polynomial equations with real coefficients occur in conjugate pairs. Be able to solve cubic or quartic equations with real coefficients. 

4. Sequences and series
Be able to use standard formulae for r=1nr, r=1nr2, r=1nr3and the method of differences to sum series Be able to construct and present a proof using mathematical induction for given results for the formula for the nth term of a sequence, the sum of a series or the nth power of a matrix. 

5. Complex numbers and geometry
Understand the language of complex numbers (modulus, argument) Be able to use radians in the context of complex numbers Be able to represent a complex number in modulusargument form. Be able to convert between the forms z=x+yi and z=r(cosθ+isinθ) where r is the modulus and θ is the argument of the complex number. Be able to multiply and divide complex numbers in modulusargument form Be able to represent the product and quotient of two complex numbers on an Argand diagram. Be able to represent and interpret sets of complex numbers as simple loci on an Argand diagram: Circles of the form z−a=r, Half lines of the form arg(z−a)=θ, Lines of the form z−a=z−b, Regions defined by inequalities based on the above e.g. z−a<r, Intersections and unions of these. 

6. Matrices and their inverses
Be able to calculate the determinant of a 2×2 matrix and a 3×3 matrix. Know the meaning of the terms singular and nonsingular as applied to matrices. (With a calculator for 3×3 matrices. A singular square matrix is noninvertible and therefore has determinant zero.) Know that the magnitude of the determinant of a 2×2 matrix gives the area scale factor of the associated transformation, and understand the significance of a zero determinant. Interpret the sign of a determinant in terms of orientation of the image. (E.g. Quadrilateral ABCD is labelled clockwise and transformed in 2D; a negative determinant for the transformation matrix means that the labelling on the image A’B’C’D’ is anticlockwise.) Know that the magnitude of the determinant of a 3x3matrix gives the volume scale factor of the associated transformation, and understand the significance of a zero determinant. Interpret the sign of a determinant in terms of orientation of the image. (The sign of the determinant determines whether the associated transformation preserves or reverses orientation (‘handedness’). E.g. If a triangle ABC is labelled clockwise when seen from point S, then for a negative determinant, the triangle A’B’C’ is anticlockwise when seen from S’) Know that det (MN) =detM xdetN and the corresponding result for scale factors of transformations. (Scale factors in 2D only.) Understand what is meant by an inverse matrix. Be able to calculate the inverse of a nonsingular 2×2 matrix or 3×3 matrix. (With a calculator for 3×3 matrices. det(A1) = 1/detA) Be able to use the inverse of a nonsingular 2×2 or 3×3 matrix. Relate the inverse matrix to the corresponding inverse transformation. (E.g. to solve a matrix equation and interpret in terms of transformations: find the preimage of a transformation.) Understand and use the product rule for inverse matrices. (AB)1 = B1A1 

7. Vectors and 3D space
Know how to calculate the scalar product of two vectors, and be able to use the two forms of the scalar product to find the angle between two vectors. (Including test for perpendicular vectors.) Be able to form and use the vector and cartesian equations of a plane. Convert between vector and cartesian forms for the equation of a plane. Know that a vector which is perpendicular to a plane is perpendicular to any vector in the plane. (If a vector is perpendicular to two nonparallel vectors in a plane, it is perpendicular to the plane.) 4 Know the different ways in which three distinct planes can be arranged in 3D space. (If two planes are parallel the third can be parallel or cut the other two in parallel lines; if no pair is parallel the planes can intersect in a point, form a sheaf or form a prismatic intersection.) Be able to solve three linear simultaneous equations in three variables by use of the inverse of the corresponding matrix. Interpret the solution or failure of solution geometrically in terms of the arrangement of three planes. Be able to find the intersection of three planes when they meet in a point. (Inverse obtained using a calculator. If the corresponding matrix is singular, learners should know the possible arrangements of the planes; they will be given extra information or guidance if required to distinguish between these arrangements.) Know that the angle between two planes can be found by considering the angle between their normals. (The angle between two nonperpendicular planes is the acute angle between them.) 
FURTHER MATHS Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – Numerical Methods 
Length of Paper – 90 minutes 
Areas of Focus/Review – Please be as descriptive as possible.  Covered (Tick) 
Be able to use a spreadsheet to implement numerical methods  
Be able to use a the iterative capability of a calculator  
Be able to calculate errors and to know the difference between absolute and relative errors  
Understand how errors in one area affect errors in other areas of calculations  
Understand the importance and consequences of rounding errors  
Understand how a sequence of answers can converge or diverge to reach an improved solution  
Methods: Bisection, False Position, Secant, Fixed Point Iteration and NewtonRaphson – be able to use, explain and converge these methods to solve problems  
Be able to relax a fixed point iteration method  
Numerical Differentiation: Forward and Central difference – be able to estimate derivatives and compare these two methods  
Numerical Integration: Midpoint, Trapezium and Simpson’s – be able to estimate integrals and link the methods  
Function Approximations: Newton’s Interpolating Polynomial and Lagrange – be able to construct polynomials 
FURTHER MATHS Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – Modelling with Algorithms 
Length of Paper – 1hr 15 mins 
Areas of Focus/Review – Please be as descriptive as possible.  Covered (Tick) 
Algorithms
Understand that an algorithm is a finite sequence of operations for carrying out a procedure or solving a problem. Understand that an algorithm can be the basis for a computer program. Be able to interpret and apply algorithms presented in a variety of formats. Be able to repair, develop and adapt given algorithms. Understand and be able to use the basic ideas of algorithmic complexity and be able to analyse the complexity of given algorithms. Know that complexity can be used, among other things, to compare algorithms. Understand that algorithms can sometimes be proved correct or incorrect. Understand and know the importance of heuristics. Know and be able to use the quick sort algorithm. Be able to apply other sorting algorithms which are specified. Be able to count the number of comparisons and/or swaps needed in particular applications of sorting algorithms, and relate this to complexity. Be able to reason about a given sorting algorithm. Know and be able to use first fit and first fit decreasing packing algorithms and full bin strategies. Be able to count the number of comparisons needed in particular applications of packing algorithms, and relate this to complexity. 

Networks and graphs
Understand and be able to use graphs and associated language. Be able to model problems by using graphs. Understand that a network is a graph with weighted arcs. Be able to model problems by using networks. Be able to solve minimum connector problems using Kruskal’s and Prim’s algorithms. Model shortest path problems and solve using Dijkstra’s algorithm. Know and use the fact that Kruskal’s, Prim’s and Dijkstra’s algorithms have quadratic complexity. 

Critical path analysis
Model precedence problems with an activityonarc network. Use critical path analysis and be able to interpret outcomes, including implications for criticality. Be able to analyse float (total, independent and interfering), resourcing and scheduling. Be able to use a network to model a transmission system. Be able to specify a cut and calculate its capacity. Understand and use the maximum flow/ minimum cut theorem. Understand that network algorithms can be explored, understood and tested in cases in which the algorithm can be run by hand, but for practical problems the algorithm needs to be formulated in a way suitable for computing power to be applied. Formulations will be restricted to LPs. Questions may be set about the time taken by computer software to implement an algorithm when its complexity is known. 

LINEAR PROGRAMMING Formulating a problem
Understand and use the language associated with linear programming. Be able to identify and define variables from a given problem. Be able to formulate a problem as a linear program. Be able to recognise when an LP is in standard form. Be able to use slack variables to convert an LP in standard form to augmented form. Recognise when an LP requires an integer solution. Be able to formulate a range of network problems as LPs. Be able to graph inequalities in 2D and identify feasible regions. Be able to solve a 2D LP graphically. Be able to consider the effect of modifying constraints or the objective function. Be able to solve simple 2D integer LP problems graphically. Be able to use a visualisation of a 3D LP to solve it. Be able to reduce a 3D LP to a 2D LP when one constraint is an equality. 

Simplex method
Be able to use the simplex algorithm on an LP in augmented form. Understand the geometric basis for the simplex method. Interpret a tableau in terms of the vertex and value of the objective function. Recognise that if an LP includes $ constraints then the twostage simplex method may be used; understand how this method works and be able to set up the initial tableau in such cases. Be able to reformulate an equality constraint as a pair of inequality constraints. Understand that some LPs can be solved using graphical techniques or the simplex method, but for practical problems computing power needs to be applied. Know that a spreadsheet LP solver routine, or other software, can solve an LP given in standard form or, in some cases, in nonstandard form. Be able to interpret the output from a spreadsheet optimisation routine, or other software, for the simplex method or ILPs. 
GEOGRAPHY Y12 PPE 2
Topic 2 / Dynamic Landscapes / Coastal Landscapes and Change
Length of Paper (with rebranding) – 1 hour 15 minutes
Student Syllabus & SelfAssessment. Please traffic light your understanding of each section
Enquiry question 1: Why are coastal landscapes different and what processes cause these differences? 
The coast and wider littoral zone has distinctive features and landscapes. 
The littoral zone consists of backshore, nearshore and offshore zones, includes a wide variety of coastal types and is a dynamic zone of rapid change. 
Coasts can be classified by using longer term criteria such as geology and changes of sea level or shorter term processes such as inputs from rivers, waves and tides. 
Rocky coasts (high and low relief) result from resistant geology (to the erosive forces of sea, rain and wind), often in a high energy environment, whereas coastal plain landscapes (sandy and estuarine coasts) are found near areas of low relief and result from supply of sediment from different terrestrial and offshore sources, often in a lowenergy environment. 
Geological structure influences the development of coastal landscapes at a variety of scales. 
Geological structure is responsible for the formation of concordant and discordant coasts. 
Geological structure influences coastal morphology: Dalmatian and Haff type concordant coasts and headlands and bays on discordant coasts. 
Geological structure (jointing, dip, faulting, folding) is an important influence on coastal morphology and erosion rates, and also on the formation of cliff profiles and the occurrence of microfeatures, e.g. caves. (2) 
Rates of Coastal recession and stability depend on lithology and other factors. 
Bedrock lithology (igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic) and unconsolidated material geology are important in understanding rates of coastal recession. 
Differential erosion of alternating strata in cliffs (permeable/impermeable, resistant/less resistant) produces complex cliff profiles and influences recession rates. (3) 
Vegetation is important in stabilising sandy coastlines through dune successional development on sandy coastlines and salt marsh successional development in estuarine areas. 
Enquiry question 2: How do characteristic coastal landforms contribute to coastal landscapes? 
Marine erosion creates distinctive coastal landforms and contributes to coastal landscapes. 
Different wave types (constructive/destructive) influence beach morphology and beach sediment profiles, which vary at a variety of temporal scales from short term (daily) through to longer periods (4) 
The importance of erosion processes (hydraulic action, corrosion, abrasion, attrition) and how they are influenced by wave type, size and lithology. 
Erosion creates distinctive coastal landforms (wave cut notches, wave cut platforms, cliffs, the cavearchstack stump sequence). 
Sediment transport and deposition create distinctive landforms and contribute to coastal landscapes. 
Sediment transportation is influenced by the angle of wave attack, tides and currents and the process of longshore drift.(5) 
Transportation and deposition processes produce distinctive coastal landforms (beaches, recurved and double spits, offshore bars, barrier beaches and bars, tombolos and cuspate forelands), which can be stabilised by plant succession. 
The Sediment Cell concept (sources, transfers and sinks) is important in understanding the coast as a system with both negative and positive feedback, it is an example of dynamic equilibrium. 
Subaerial processes of mass movement and weathering influence coastal landforms and contribute to coastal landscapes. 
Weathering (mechanical, chemical, and biological) is important in sediment production and influences rates of recession. 
Mass movement (blockfall, rotational slumping, and landslides) is important on some coasts with weak and/or complex geology. 
Mass movement creates distinctive landforms (rotational scars, talus scree slopes, and terraced cliff profiles). 
Enquiry question 3: How do coastal erosion and sea level change alter the physical characteristics of coastlines and increase risks? 
Sea level Change influences coasts on different timescales. 
Longerterm sea level changes result from a complex interplay of factors both eustatic (ice formation/melting, thermal changes) and isostatic (post glacial adjustment, subsidence, accretion) and tectonics. 
Sea level change has produced emergent coastlines (raised beaches with fossil cliffs) and submergent coastlines (rias, fjords and Dalmatian). (6) 
Contemporary sea level change from global warming or tectonic activity is a risk to some coastlines. 
Rapid coastal retreat causes threats to people at the coast. 
Rapid coastal recession is caused by physical factors (geological and marine) but can be influenced by human actions (dredging or coastal management the Nile Delta, Guinea and Californian coastlines). (A: actions of different players may alter natural systems) 
Subaerial processes (weather and mass movement) work together to influence rates of coastal recession. 
Rates of recession are not constant and are influenced by different factors both short and longer term (wind direction/fetch, tides, seasons, weather systems and occurrence of storms). (7) 
Coastal flooding is a significant and increasing risk for some coastlines. 
Local factors increase flood risk on some lowlying and estuarine coasts (height, degree of subsidence, vegetation removal); global sea level rise further increases risk (Bangladesh, the Maldives). 
Storm surge events can cause severe coastal flooding with dramatic shortterm impacts (depressions, tropical cyclones) can cause severe coastal flooding (the Philippines, Bangladesh). 
Climate change may increase coastal flood risk (frequency and magnitude of storms, sea level rise) but the pace and magnitude of this threat is uncertain. (F: this risk is creating an uncertain future and needs mitigation and adaptation) 
Enquiry question 4: How can coastlines be managed to meet the needs of all players? 
Increasing risks of coastal recession and coastal flooding have serious consequences for affected communities. 
Economic losses (housing, businesses, agricultural land, and infrastructure) and social losses (relocation, loss of livelihood, amenity value) from coastal recession can be significant, especially in areas of dense coastal developments (Holderness, north Norfolk). 
Coastal flooding and storm surge events can have serious economic and social consequences for coastal communities in both developing and developed countries (the Philippines, Bangladesh and Netherlands). 
Climate change may create environmental refugees in coastal areas (Tuvalu Islands). 
There are Different approaches to managing the risks associated with coastal recession and flooding. 
Hard engineering approaches (groynes, sea walls, rip rap, revetments, and offshore breakwaters) are economically costly and directly alter physical processes and systems. (8) (A: actions by different players may have unforeseen consequences) 
Soft engineering approaches (beach nourishment, cliff regrading and drainage, dune stabilisation) attempt to work with physical systems and processes to protect coasts (9) and manage changes in sea level. 
Sustainable management is designed to cope with future threats (increased storm events, rising sea levels) but its implementation can lead to local conflicts in many countries (Maldives, Namibia). (F: mitigation and adaptation will both be needed for future stability) 
Coastlines are now increasingly managed by holistic integrated coastal zone management (ICZM). 
Coastal management increasingly uses the concept of littoral cells to manage extended areas of coastline. Throughout the world, countries are developing schemes that are sustainable and use holistic ICZM strategies. 
Policy decisions (No Active Intervention, Strategic Realignment and Hold The Line Advance The Line) are based on complex judgements (engineering feasibility, environmental sensitivity, land value, political and social reasons) (7); Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) are used as part of the decisionmaking process. 
Policy decisions can lead to conflicts between different players (homeowners, local authorities, environmental pressure groups) with perceived winners and losers in countries at different levels of development (developed and developing or emerging countries) ( Hapisburgh and Chittagong). (A: attitudes of differing players may vary) 
GEOGRAPHY YR12 PPE2
TOPIC 4: REGENERATING PLACES
Length of Paper (with coasts) – 1 hour 15 minutes
KQ1: How and why do places vary? 
4A.1 – Economies can be classified in different ways and vary from place to place 
· Economic sectors can be defined by: Sector (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary) and employment (part/fulltime, temporary/permanent, employed/selfemployed)
· The effects of economic activity can have social effects through: health, life expectancy and levels of education · The effects of unequal pay can have an effect on the quality of life through: deprivation, healthcare, education levels etc. 
4A.2 – Places have faced their function and characteristics over time 
· Areas change their function over time: administrative, commercial, retail and industrial. Areas can also change their demographic characteristics: gentrification, age structure and ethnic composition
· The changes in function and characteristics can be explained by: physical factors, accessibility, connectedness, historical development and the role of local or national planning. · Change in areas can be measured by looking at: employment rates, demographic changes, land use changes, levels of deprivation (health deprivation, income deprivation, employment deprivation, crime, quality of the environment, abandoned and derelict land) 
4A.3 – Past and present connections have shaped the economic and social characteristics of your chosen area 
· Regional and national influences have shaped the characteristics of your chosen places.
· International and global influences that have shaped our chosen area. · How have economic and social changes in our chosen area influenced people’s identity? 
KQ2: Why might regeneration be needed? 
4A.4 – Economic and social inequalities changes people’s perceptions of an area 
· Successful regions (Sydney) have high rates of employment, high levels of migration (internal and international), low levels of deprivation, but on the other hand, have high property prices and skills shortage.
· Unsuccessful regions (Rust Belt) due to economic change and spiral of decline leading to high levels of deprivation (education, health, crime and poor living environment) · Priorities for regeneration vary due to differences in economic and social inequalities through the existence of: gated communities, sink estates, commuter villages and declining rural settlements 
4A.5 – There are significant variations in lived experience of place and engagement with them 
· There are wide variations in level of engagement in local communities including: local and national government and community groups)
· Lived experience, and attachment to, places varies according to age, ethnicity, gender, length of residence and levels of deprivation: these in turn impact on levels of engagement. · Conflicts can occur among different groups in a community regarding the priorities for regeneration. This can occur due to: lack of political engagement and representation, ethnic tensions, inequality and lack of economic opportunity 
4A.6 – There is a range of ways to evaluate the need for regeneration 
· The use of statistical evidence to determine the need for regeneration in your chosen local place (Docklands)
· Different media can provide contrasting evidence and question the need for regeneration in your chosen local place (Docklands) · How different representation of your chosen local place could influence the perceived need for regeneration in your chosen local place (Docklands) 
KQ3: How is regeneration managed? 
4A.7 – UK government policy decisions play a key role in regeneration 
· Infrastructure investment through; high speed rail and airport development, maintains and improves accessibility to help regenerate regions.
· Rate and type of development through; planning laws, house building target, housing affordability, permission for fracking, affects the economic regeneration of both urban and rural areas · UK government decisions about international migration and deregulation of capital markets, enabling investment in prime London real estate, have impacts on potential for growth and both direct and indirect investment. 
4A.8 – Local government policies aim to represent areas as being attractive for inward investment 
· Local government compete to attract investment from businesses to the area
· Local interest groups such as Chamber of commerce, local preservation societies and trade unions, play a key role in decisionmaking about regeneration; there are often tensions between groups that wish to preserve urban environments and those that want to change it such as in London 2012. · Urban and rural regeneration strategies include retailled plans, tourism, leisure and sport (London 2012) and public/private rural diversifications (Powys regeneration partnership) 
4A.9 – Rebranding attempts to represent areas as being more attractive by changing public perceptions of them 
· Rebranding involves reimaging places using a variety of media to improve the image of both urban and rural location and making them more attractive to potential investors.
· Urban regeneration – For UK deindustrialised cities, rebranding can stress the attraction of places, creating specific place identity building on their heritage; this can attract national and international tourists and visitors; e.g. Glasgow ‘Scotland with style’. · Rural regeneration – There are a range of rural rebranding strategies open to rural areas in a postproduction world. These include: heritage and literary tourism, farm diversification, specialised food products, outdoor pursuits and adventure in both accessible and remote areas; these are intended to make places more attractive e.g. Ludlow and Cornwall. 
KQ4: How successful is regeneration? 
4A.10 – The success of regeneration uses a range of measures: economic, demographic, social and environmental 
· The success of economic, regeneration can be assessed using measures of income, power and employment both within areas and comparison to other areas.
· Social progress can be measured by reductions in inequalities both between areas and within them; social progress can also be measured by improvement in social measures of deprivation and in demographic changes (improvements in life expectancy and reductions in health deprivation) · Regeneration is successful if it leads to an improvement in the living in environment through: lack of pollution, reduction in abandoned and derelict land. 
4A.11 – Different urban stakeholders have different criteria for judging the success of urban regeneration – OG 2012 
· A study of the strategies used in the regeneration of an urban place and the contested nature of this place; Glasgow
· Changes that have taken place as a consequence of national and local strategies can be judged using a range of economic, social, demographic and environmental variables in an urban area. · Different stakeholders (local, national governments, local businesses and residents) will assess the success of projects using different criteria 
4A.12 – Different rural stakeholders have different criteria for judging the success of rural regeneration – Cornwall 
· A study of the strategies used in the restructuring of a rural place (Cornwall) and contested nature of these decisions within local communities
· The changes that have taken place as a consequence of national and local strategies can be judged using a range of economic, social, demographic and environmental variables in a rural area. · Different stakeholders (local, national governments, local businesses and residents) will assess the success of projects using different criteria 
Case studies
Words to look out for in the exam  Case Studies and Examples to be used 
‘Your local place’  Redbridge/Ilford (You place)
Tower Hamlet/Docklands (Contrasting place) 
‘functions’  Redbridge/Ilford (You place)
Tower Hamlet/Docklands (Contrasting place) 
‘Characteristics’  Redbridge/Ilford (You place)
Tower Hamlet/Docklands (Contrasting place) 
‘Demographic’  Redbridge/Ilford (You place)
Tower Hamlet/Docklands (Contrasting place) 
‘Connections’  Redbridge/Ilford (You place)
Tower Hamlet/Docklands (Contrasting place) 
‘Identity change’  Redbridge/Ilford (You place)
Tower Hamlet/Docklands (Contrasting place) 
‘Economic, successful regions’  Sydney (successful) 
‘Economic, unsuccessful regions’  Rustbelt’ (unsuccessful) 
‘Engagement’  Docklands 
‘Lived experience;  Docklands 
‘Need for regeneration’  Docklands 
‘National government’  Fracking, HS2 
‘Local government’  London 2012 (Urban), Powys (Rural) 
Urban Rebranding  Glasgow (Urban) 
Rural Rebranding  Cornwall (Rural) 
Urban Views, Stakeholders, Players  Glasgow (Urban) 
Rural Views, Stakeholders, Players  Cornwall (Rural) 
GOVT & POLITICS Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – Unit 1 and 2 
Length of Paper – One hour and thirty minutes 
Areas of Focus/Review  Covered (Tick) 
Unit 1  
Evaluate the functions and purpose of elections explain factors such as representation, choosing the government, holding the government to account, participation and influence on party policies (Page 4849)  
Evaluate the impacts of using a FPTP electoral system explain debates such as speed and simplicity, strong and stable government, exclusion of extremists, links to constituencies, the winner bonus, Limited voter choice and disparities between vote share and seat count (Page 5052)  
Evaluate the impacts of using an Additional Member System electoral system explain debates such as proportionality, links to constituencies, wider levels of choice, two types of members, list systems, lack of representation (Page 5354)  
Evaluate the impacts of using a Single Transferable Vote electoral system explain debates such as proportionality, voter choice, large multimember constituencies, power sharing (Page 5455)  
Evaluate the impacts of using a Supplementary Voting system explain debates such as broad support, simplicity, voter choice, lack of proportionality, majoritarianism (Page 5556)  
Compare the First Past the Post and Single Transferable Vote electoral systems in terms of fairness of outcome, choice of candidates, Link between MP and Constituency, Accountability of the Government (Page 57)  
Evaluate why referendums are held in the UK explain factors such as legitimacy, stabilisation, deals between political groups, public pressure (Page 59)  
Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of using referendums in the UK explain debates such as checks on the government, direct participation, legitimacy, education, challenges to parliament, apathy (Pages 6061)  
Evaluate why electoral systems have been adopted in different parts of the UK’s democratic system (Pages 6263)  
Evaluate the role of different groups in the outcomes of elections explain debates such as the importance of the government, opposition, pressure groups (Page 6465)  
Evaluate the effects of electoral systems on the government explain debates such as the increase in coalitions, impacts on party representations, impacts of voter choice (Page 65)  
Unit 2  
Explain the exclusive powers of the House of Commons  
Explain the main powers of the House of Lords  
Explain how members are selected for the House of Commons  
Explain how members are selected for the House of Lords  
Evaluate the view that the House of Commons fulfil their functions effectively  
Evaluate the view that the House of Lords fulfil their functions effectively  
Evaluate how far the House of Lords are more efficient in terms of fulfilling functions compared to the House of Commons  
Evaluate the nature of interactions between the House of Lords and the House of Commons interact during the legislative process  
Evaluate the importance of the Salisbury Convention  
Evaluate the role of backbenchers in both Houses  
Explain the importance of parliamentary privilege  
Explain the work of select committees  
Evaluate the view that the work of select committees is significant  
Evaluate how far the opposition are important  
Evaluate to what extent ministerial question time reflects an effective check on the Executive  
Evaluate the relationship between government and Parliament  
Evaluate how far Parliament can effectively check on the power of government  
Evaluate how far Parliament can effectively check on the power of the executive 
HISTORY Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – American Dream and South Africa 
Length of Paper – One hour and thirty minutes 
Areas of Focus/Review  Covered (Tick) 
American Dream  
Assess the impact of the boom, bust and recovery of 1917– 41 on the changing standard of living  
Assess the impact of the Second World War on the changing standard of living  
Assess the impact of postwar affluence and growth on the changing standard of living, 1941–69  
Assess the economic environment challenges of the 1970s on the changing standard of living  
Assess the fluctuations in the standard of living on the changing quality of life, 1917–41  
Assess the impact of the Second World War on the changing quality of life  
Assess the impact of the growth of a consumer society on the changing quality of life, 1941–60  
Assess the impact of anti poverty policies and economic divisions on the changing quality of life, 1961–80  
Explain the reasons for the development of increased leisure time, 191780  
Assess the impact of increased leisure time on the changing quality of life, 191780  
Explain the growth of spectator sports on the changing quality of life  
Explain the development of the USA becoming a carowning culture on the changing quality of life  
Explain the influence of the USA becoming a carowning culture on the changing quality of life  
Explain the development and impact of improved air travel on the changing quality of life  
South Africa  
Explain how and why there was an increase in resistance to Apartheid  
Explain how the resistance used peaceful protest methods  
Explain the events before, during and after the Sharpeville Massacre  
Explain the government reaction to Sharpeville including bans and the state of emergency  
Assess the significance of the Sharpeville Massacre  
Explain why the South African Republic was created  
Understand the importance of Macmillan’s ‘wind of change’ speech and leaving the Commonwealth  
Explain why South Africa left the Commonwealth  
Explain how and why African organisations moved to armed struggle  
Assess how far the MK (Umkhonto we Sizwe) and Poqo helped South Africans  
Explain the events of the Rivonia Trial and the significance of the verdict  
Assess the impact of exile and imprisonment on the ANC and PAC  
Explain how the government strengthened separate development  
Explain South Africa’s international relations and diplomatic ties in this decade (1960s)  
Explain how Vorster used police powers and defence forces 
IT Y12 PPE 2
Areas of Focus/Review – Please be as descriptive as possible.  Covered (Tick) 
Holders of information  
Types of storage  
Internet and WWW  
Quality of information and information management  
Categories of information  
Stages of data analysis  
Legislation and regulation and Green IT  
Information sources and data types  
Principles of data security  
Risks of breaches of security  
The different types of protection methods 
MATHS Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – Pure 
Length of Paper – 1hr 30 mins 
Areas of Focus/Review – Please be as descriptive as possible.  Covered (Tick) 
Algebra 1
Use Direct Proof, Proof by exhaustion and counter examples Use and manipulate index laws Manipulate surds and rationalise the denominator Solve quadratic equations and sketch their curves Understand and use coordinate geometry Understand and solve simultaneous equations Understand and solve inequalities 

Polynomials and the binomial theorem
Manipulate, simplify and factorise polynomials Understand and use the binomial theorem Divide polynomials by algebraic expressions Understand and use the factor theorem Analyse a function and sketch its graph 

Trigonometry
Calculate the values of Sine, Cosine and tangent for any angle Use trigonometric identities Recognise the equation of a circle Sketch and describe trigonometric functions Solve trigonometric equations Use the sine, and cosine rules Use the area of a triangle formula 

Differentiation and Integration
Be able to differentiate from first principles Differentiate terms in the form ax^n Calculate rates of change Work out and interpret equations, including tangents, normals, turning points and second derivatives Work out the integral function Calculate definite integrals Calculate the area under a curve 

Vectors
Be able to identify vectors and scalar quantities Solve geometric problems in 2D using vectors Solve problems using displacements, velocities and forces Find the magnitude and direction of a vector and use these components Use position vectors to find displacements and distances 
MATHS Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – Applied (Stats and Mechanics) 
Length of Paper – 1hr 
Areas of Focus/Review – Please be as descriptive as possible.  Covered (Tick) 
Units and Kinematics
Understand SI units and convert between them Calculate average speed and velocity Draw and interpret graphs of displacement and velocity against time Derive and use the formulae for motion (SUVAT) Use calculus to solve problems involving variable acceleration 

Collection, representing and interpreting data
Be able to tell the difference between a population and a sample, and how this affects data results Be able to identify and name sampling methods and talk about what bias could arise Read discrete data from a variety of diagrams Read continuous data from a variety of diagrams Plot and use scatter diagrams Summarize raw data (including, central tendency and spread) 

Probability and discrete random variables
Use correct vocabulary of probability theory Solve problems involving mutually exclusive and independent events Use a probability function to find a probability distribution for particular events Be able to recognise and solve problems related to the binomial distribution 

MEDIA STUDIES Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – Media Production, industries and Audiences 
Length of Paper – 2 hours 
Areas of Focus/Review – Please be as descriptive as possible.  Covered (Tick) 
Media Language 

Representation 

Media Industries 

Audiences 

Film 

Newspapers 

Music Videos 

Advertising and Marketing 
PHYSICS Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – AS Physics 
Length of Paper – 2 hours 
Areas of Focus/Review – Please be as descriptive as possible.  Covered (Tick) 
Electric Current  
DC circuits  
Matter and radiation  
Quarks and Leptons  
Quantum Phenomena  
Waves  
Optics  
Forces in Equilibrium  
On the Move (SUVAT, Motion graphs and projectile motion)  
PSYCHOLOGY Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – Paper 1 Foundations in Psychology 
Length of Paper – 1 hour 
Areas of Focus/Review  Covered (Tick) 
Social Psychology 













· Practical  
· Issues and debates  
· Individual differences and developmental psychology  
Cognitive Psychology 





















Biological Psychology 







Learning Theories 










You must know ALL the content for Social and Cognitive Psychology.
You must know the content listed above for Biological Psychology and Learning Theories.
The paper will have a mixture of data response, short mark questions and extended response (8 and 12 mark questions).
Please see MyPLC for full details of what you must
SOCIOLOGY Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – Sociology PPE 2 – Y12 
Length of Paper – 1 hr 30 mins 
Areas of Focus/Review  Covered (Tick) 
Education (topics 1, 2, 3 and 5 on myPLC)  
Family (topics 15 on myPLC)  
Exam Skills – PERCAL structure  
Exam Skills – 10 mark outline and explain  
Exam Skills – 10 mark applying material from the item  
Exam Skills – 4 & 6 mark questions 
SPANISH Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – Reading, listening, translation 
Length of Paper – 2.5 hours 
Areas of Focus/Review – Please be as descriptive as possible.  Covered (Tick) 
Revise vocabulary from Unit 2: El ciberespacio  
Revise key grammar from Unit 2: El ciberespacio  
Revise vocabulary from Unit 5: La identidad regional en España  
Revise key grammar from Unit 5: La identidad regional en España  
Revise translation skills and notes: EngSpan  
Revise translation skills and notes: SpanEng  
Revise a range of key verbs in all tenses/moods  
Review listening and reading exam strategies discussed this year so far 
BTEC BUSINESS LEVEL 3 Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – BTEC Business Level 3 – Unit 3 Finance 
Length of Paper – 2 hours 
Areas of Focus/Review – Please be as descriptive as possible.  Covered (Tick) 
Covers Learning Aims ACDE
LAA – Functions of Money 

LAA – Role of Money
LAA – Planning expenditure 

LAA – Different ways to pay, cash, credit card, cheque, electronic transfer, direct debit, standing order, charge card, store card, BACs  
LAA – Current accounts – standard, premium, basic, student, – be able to compare deals financial ombudsman service –
LAA – Different types of borrowing – Overdraft, hire purchase, mortgage, credit card, payday loan be able to compare deals 

LAA Savings and Investment – ISAs, Deposit and savings account, premium bonds, bonds and guilts, shares, pensions be able to compare deals  
LAA – Insurance and assurance – car, home, life, travel, pet, health be able to compare deals
LAC – Purpose of accounting – record transactions, management, compliance, measuring performance, 

LAC – types of income, capital, revenue – basic calculations
LAC – Types of expenditure – capital, revenue basic calculations including depreciation 

LAD – Sources of finance – Internal, external  
LAE – Cash flow forecasts – inflows / receipts, outflows expenditure, Credit balances, opening and closing cash / bank balances,  
LAE – Use of cash flow forecasts for planning, monitoring and control.  
LAE – Break even analysis – drawing a break even chart, use of break even for planning, monitoring, control and target setting 
BTEC BUSINESS DOUBLE Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – Unit 6 – Principles of management 
Length of Paper – 3 hours 
Areas of Focus/Review – Please be as descriptive as possible.  Covered (Tick) 
Management & Leadership Styles & definitions  
Functions of management and leadership, planning, communicating, organising etc.  
Business culture  
Leadership styles – democratic/autocratic/paternalistic/laissezfaire/transactional  
Setting objectives – management and leadership skills  
HR –Human Resources, explanations and what they do  
Forecasting labour demand  
Types of workers – fulltime, parttime, zero contract, temporary staff, agency staff  
Absenteeism  
Motivation at work, F.W Taylor, E. Mayo et al  
Recruitment  
Training  
Appraisals  
Impact of change – stakeholders and their influence  
Quality management, standards, i.e investors in people, kite marks 
BTEC BUSINESS SINGLE Y12 PPE 2
Name of Paper – BTEC Business Level 3 – Unit 3 Finance 
Length of Paper – 2 hours 
Areas of Focus/Review – Please be as descriptive as possible.  Covered (Tick) 
Covers Learning Aims ACDE
LAA – Functions of Money 

LAA – Role of Money
LAA – Planning expenditure 

LAA – Different ways to pay, cash, credit card, cheque, electronic transfer, direct debit, standing order, charge card, store card, BACs  
LAA – Current accounts – standard, premium, basic, student, – be able to compare deals financial ombudsman service –
LAA – Different types of borrowing – Overdraft, hire purchace, mortgage, credit card, payday loan be able to compare deals 

LAA Savings and Investment – ISAs, Deposit and savings account, premium bonds, bonds and guilts, shares, pensions be able to compare deals  
LAA – Insurance and assurance – car, home, life, travel, pet, health be able to compare deals
LAC – Purpose of accounting – record transactions, management, compliance, measuring performance, 

LAC – types of income, capital, revenue – basic calculations
LAC – Types of expenditure – capital, revenue basic calculations including depreciation 

LAD – Sources of finance – Internal, external  
LAE – Cash flow forecasts – inflows / receipts, outflows expenditure, credit balances, opening and closing cash / bank balances,  
LAE – Use of cash flow forecasts for planning, monitoring and control.  
LAE – Break even analysis – drawing a break even chart, use of break even for planning, monitoring, control and target setting 